Reports


Name Scores Description
Protein Intake
protein-intake
  • 0 = Less a protein seeker
  • 1 = Tend not to be a protein seeker, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to be a protein seeker
  • 4 = More a protein seeker
Protein intake, dictated by diet choice, varies substantially between individuals. There is evidence that this variation may in part be attributed to genetic variation, and contributes to differential risk in chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.
References
Carbohydrate Intake
carbohydrate-intake
  • 0 = Less a carbohydrate seeker
  • 1 = Tend not to be a carbohydrate seeker, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to be a carbohydrate seeker
  • 4 = More a carbohydrate seeker
Carbohydrate intake, dictated by diet choice, varies substantially between individuals. There is evidence that this variation may in part be attributed to genetic variation, and contributes to differential risk in chronic diseases such as obesity and diabetes.
References
Affinity for Red Wine
red-wine-liking
  • 0 = Lower affinity
  • 1 = Tend not to be a red wine lover, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to be a red wine lover
  • 4 = Higher affinity
Wine is one of the most beloved alcoholic drinks in the world. While recent research has identified a genetic marker indicating the preference for red wine, an affinity for red wine may equally likely develop due to exposure, preference of others, and social customs, even in the absence of such genetic variants. Interestingly, the effect of the genetic variant on affinity for red wine is twice as large in women than in men.
References
Affinity for White Wine
white-wine-liking
  • 0 = Lower affinity
  • 1 = Tend not to be a white wine lover, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to be a white wine lover
  • 4 = Higher affinity
Wine is one of the most beloved alcoholic drinks in the world. While recent research has identified a genetic marker indicating the preference for white wine, an affinity for white wine may equally likely develop due to exposure, preference of others, and social customs, even in the absence of such genetic variants. Interestingly, the effect of the genetic variant on affinity for white wine is twice as large in women than in men.
References
Smell Sensitivity for Malt
smell-sensitivity-for-malt
  • 0 = Less sensitive
  • 1 = Slightly less sensitive
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Somewhat sensitive
  • 4 = More sensitive
Smell sensitivity for food odors, including for malt, is heritable. A research study investigating smell sensitivity found participants to have unique profiles of smell sensitivities for various food odors, indicating that each individual experiences a slightly different olfactory world than the next person. Individuals who are sensitive to the smell of malt may have an affinity for the taste of malt-derived alcohol, such as beer.
References
Smoking Behavior
smoking-behavior
  • 0 = Less likely
  • 1 = Tend to not be a heavy smoker, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to be a heavy smoker
  • 4 = More likely
Smoking is a common risk factor for many diseases. There are genetic underpinnings for smoking quantity, smoking initiation, and smoking cessation. In other words, genetic variants that influence whether you smoke at all, how much you smoke, and whether you’re likely to quit exist. Of course, environmental factors, such as exposure and social norms, may impact smoking behavior as well.
References
Bitter Taste
bitter-taste
  • 0 = Less sensitive
  • 1 = Slightly less sensitive
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Somewhat sensitive
  • 4 = More sensitive
There is great individual difference in how easily we experience bitter taste, due to high genetic variation in the genes that code for bitter taste receptors expressed on our tongues. If you couldn’t stand the taste of brussel sprouts or green peppers as a kid, or the taste of coffee now, you may have hyper-sensitive bitter taste perception.
References
Caffeine Metabolite Ratio
caffeine-metabolite-ratio
  • 0 = Lower
  • 1 = Slightly slower
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly faster
  • 4 = Higher
Caffeine, whether in the form of coffee, tea, or energy drinks, is the most widely consumed psychoactive substance. There is wide interindividual variation in the ability to metabolize caffeine. This variation may also influence the level of caffeine consumption: In a research study, a lower concentration of metabolite in blood, indicating slower caffeine metabolism, was associated with lower caffeine consumption.
References
Caffeine Consumption
caffeine-consumption
  • 0 = Tend to consume less coffee
  • 1 = Tend to consume slightly less coffee
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Tend to consume slightly more coffee
  • 4 = Tend to consume more coffee
Caffeine consumption has wide interindividual variation. Besides genetic markers associated with caffeine metabolism, genetic markers implicated in vulnerability to addiction and blood pressure were also found to be associated with caffeine consumption.
References
Alcohol Drinking Behavior
alcohol-drinking-behavior
  • 0 = Less likely
  • 1 = Tend not to be a drinker, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to be a drinker
  • 4 = More likely
Drinking is a common risk factor for many diseases. Many research studies on diverse ethnic populations have identified a vast array of genetic markers associated with elevated alcohol consumption. Of course, environmental factors, such as exposure and social norms, may impact drinking behavior as well.
References
Egg Allergy
egg-allergy
  • 0 = Lower risk
  • 1 = Slightly lower risk
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher risk
  • 4 = Higher risk
Egg allergy is an immune hypersensitivity to proteins found in eggs and it is a heritable trait. Our understanding of the immune system’s reaction to allergies is still very limited -- the immune system is very complex; environmental and genetic contributions are difficult to isolate and study. Furthermore, allergic reactions span a wide range in severity -- lots of people don’t even notice they have an egg allergy!
References
Peanut Allergy
peanuts-allergy
  • 0 = Lower risk
  • 1 = Slightly lower risk
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher risk
  • 4 = Higher risk
Peanut allergy ranks as one of the top three food allergies, along with allergies to egg white and cow’s milk. Most people find out whether they have a peanut allergy through general life experience. However, some people don’t develop a food allergy until later in life, or they outgrow an allergy, only to have it come back again later in adulthood. We can’t explain these phenomena yet, as a mechanistic understanding of allergy development and the immune system is still very limited.
References
Milk Allergy
milk-allergy
  • 0 = Lower risk
  • 1 = Slightly lower risk
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher risk
  • 4 = Higher risk
Milk allergy ranks as one of the top three food allergies, along with allergies to egg white and peanuts. Most people find out whether they have a milk allergy through general life experience. However, some people don’t develop a food allergy until later in life, or they outgrow an allergy, only to have it come back again later in adulthood. We can’t explain these phenomena yet, as a mechanistic understanding of allergy development and the immune system is still very limited.
References
Vitamin A
vitamin-a
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Vitamin A is a group of fat soluble vitamins that includes the highly biologically active retinol. Retinol plays a critical role in protecting the health of your eyes and skin. If deficient in retinol, night blindness may occur and you may have a weakened skin barrier -- increasing the risk of infection. In contrast, too much retinol intake may bring about headaches and nausea, and abnormal fetal growth in pregnant women.
References
Vitamin B12
vitamin-b12
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Humans cannot produce Vitamin B12 in our bodies, so we must obtain it from our diet. Vitamin B12 is enriched in animal-based foods, such as dairy, meat, and fish. It is an important component in several metabolic pathways. While most Americans obtain sufficient Vitamin B12 from their diet, a deficiency may cause weakness, nerve problems, and mental problems.
References
Vitamin D
vitamin-d
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
We obtain Vitamin D through our diet and exposure to sunlight (a great excuse to get out in the sun!). Vitamin D is a fat-soluble group of vitamins that helps calcium, magnesium, and phosphate to get absorbed by our digestive system, thereby protecting the health of our teeth and bones. It also has protective effects for our immune, brain, and nervous system.
References
Vitamin E
vitamin-e
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and has antioxidant effects. Vitamin E has many physiological functions, including protecting against heart disease, nervous system disorders, and pregnancy complications. While Vitamin E deficiency is rare, it can occur in premature infants and those with certain genetic disorders. Vitamin E deficiency can be remedied with Vitamin E supplementation, however our sensitivity to Vitamin E supplementation also varies genetically.
References
Response to Vitamin E Supplementation
response-to-vitamin-e-supplementation
  • 0 = Weaker response
  • 1 = Slightly weak response
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly stronger response
  • 4 = Stronger response
Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin and has antioxidant effects. Vitamin E has many physiological functions, including protecting against heart disease, nervous system disorders, and pregnancy complications. While Vitamin E deficiency is rare, it can occur in premature infants and those with certain genetic disorders. Vitamin E deficiency can be remedied with Vitamin E supplementation, however our sensitivity to Vitamin E supplementation also varies genetically.
References
Folate
folate
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Folate, a type of vitamin B (vitamin B9), is a wellknown component in prenatal vitamins. Besides its role in promoting red blood cell formation and healthy cell growth in all humans, its function in DNA synthesis and amino acid metabolism is critical in ensuring normal fetal growth during pregnancy. Folate in enriched in leafy greens, legumes and certain fruits, including citrus fruits.
References
Calcium
calcium
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Calcium is an essential mineral that performs diverse functions in humans. 99% is located in the bones and teeth and acts as a structural component. The remaining 1%, found in the blood and other tissues, contributes to muscle contraction and message relaying between neurons. Low blood calcium levels prompts calcium release from the bones.
References
Magnesium
magnesium
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Magnesium, like phosphorus, works with calcium to contribute to the health of the bones and teeth. Because of this, magnesium is mostly stored in our bones, teeth and muscles. It has many other important physiological functions, such as enabling enzyme reactions, facilitating energy production, and protecting the integrity of DNA and RNA structure.
References
Phosphorus
phosphorus
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Phosphorus is an essential mineral enriched in fish, dairy products, meats, beans and eggs. While attention is typically attributed to calcium alone in building strong bones, phosphorus actually plays an indispensable role -- calcium needs to combine with phosphorus to form bones and teeth. Some people may need to watch out for excessive blood phosphorus levels. Excessive phophorus and low calcium in the blood may in fact weaken your bones.
References
Iron
iron
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Iron is an essential mineral, even though humans only require trace amounts, Most of it is found in the hemoglobin in red blood cells, which is involved in transporting oxygen from the lungs to all tissues throughout the body. As our blood iron level is in part genetically determined, different individuals accumulate iron in blood with differing levels of ease. Iron deficiency may lead to anemia.
References
Alpha-Linolenic Acid
alpha-linolenic-acid
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential omega-3 fatty acid -- known as the "good" fats. DHA and EPA, which are enriched in fish and shellfish, are also omega-3 fatty acids. ALA is enriched in vegetable oils, red meat, and dairy. Obtaining enough ALA and other fatty acids is important for heart and blood vessel health. Approximately 10-15% of ALA is metabolized into EPA or DHA in the body.
References
Beta-Carotene
beta-carotene
  • 0 = Lower blood serum level
  • 1 = Slightly lower serum level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher serum level
  • 4 = Higher blood serum level
Beta-carotene is a red-orange pigment and is contained in brightly colored vegetables and fruits, including carrots, spinach, and broccoli. Beta-carotene can be converted into vitamin A in the body, but at a very low rate (~8%). As high level of vitamin A (especially through vitamin A supplementation) can be toxic, obtaining sufficient vitamin A through beta-carotene in your diet is a great way to ensure optimal vitamin A levels in your body.
References
Blood Glucose
blood-glucose
  • 0 = Lower blood glucose level
  • 1 = Slightly lower blood level
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher blood level
  • 4 = Higher blood glucose level
Blood glucose indicates the level of sugar in your blood. Blood glucose fluctuates throughout the day -- typically at its lowest before meals and highest immediately following meals. Fasting blood glucose level (the baseline) differs among people and is in part determined by genetics. Chronic elevated blood glucose is a symptom of diabetes or prediabetes.
References
Agreeableness
agreeableness
  • 0 = Less agreeable
  • 1 = Tend not to be agreeable, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to be agreeable
  • 4 = More agreeable
Agreeableness is one of the five personality traits in the five-factor model, the well-known personality framework used in psychology. Agreeableness is the tendency to show compassion, trust and be helpful or cooperative toward others. While some of the personality links to certain genetic markers were replicated by further studies, some have less substantial evidence.
References
Neuroticism
neuroticism
  • 0 = Less easily neurotic
  • 1 = Not easily neurotic, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Somewhat easily neurotic
  • 4 = More easily neurotic
A neurotic person is prone to experiencing negative feelings like anxiety, depression, and emotional instability. Psychologists have defined neuroticism as one of the five psychological traits (the “Big 5”) forming the basis of personality.
References
Extraversion
extraversion
  • 0 = Less extroverted
  • 1 = Tend not to be an extrovert, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight extroversion tendency
  • 4 = More extroverted
Extraverts are energized by being around and interacting with other people. They tend to be enthusiastic, talkative, and don’t mind being the center of attention. Psychologists have defined extraversion as one of the five psychological traits (the “Big 5”) forming the basis of personality.
References
Conscientiousness
conscientiousness
  • 0 = Less conscientious
  • 1 = Tend not to be conscientious, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Somewhat conscientious
  • 4 = More conscientious
Conscientiousness is the quality of being fair to others and holding yourself morally responsible for your work. Psychologists have defined conscientiousness as one of the five psychological traits (the “Big 5”) forming the basis of personality.
References
Openness
openness
  • 0 = Less open-minded
  • 1 = Tend to be less open-minded than average
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Tend to be more open-minded than average
  • 4 = More open-minded
Openness indicates the extent to which a person is open to new experiences and ideas. Someone with a high level of openness is imaginative, curious, and open-minded. Psychologists have defined openness as one of the five psychological traits (the “Big 5”) forming the basis of personality.
References
Depression
depression
  • 0 = Less easily depressed
  • 1 = Not easily depressed, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Somewhat prone to depression
  • 4 = More easily depressed
Depression is a mood disorder characterized by a persistent sad or empty mood. Individuals with depressive symptoms tend to lack energy, assertiveness, and a desire to do anything -- even activities or hobbies they previously enjoyed. Research shows that genetics is heavily implicated in whether an individual tends to feel depression easily or not.
References
Anger
anger
  • 0 = Less easily angered
  • 1 = Not easily angered, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Somewhat easily angered
  • 4 = More easily angered
The quality of feeling easily angered or not is inherited. Anger is the state of feeling or showing rage and aggression. The genetic variation may be caused by the differential amount of chemicals released in the brain when we experience upsetting situations, which contribute to a greater or lesser physiological and psychological response in those situations.
References
Reward Dependence
reward-dependence
  • 0 = Less reward dependent
  • 1 = Does not show reward dependency, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Somewhat shows reward dependency
  • 4 = More reward dependent
High reward dependence is characterized by a strong motivation to act in a way that earns social or emotional rewards. Extreme reward dependence may lead to personality or addictive disorders. This trait is moderately heritable, but mostly influenced by our upbringing and environment during development.
References
Harm Avoidance Behavior
harm-avoidance
  • 0 = Less harm avoidance
  • 1 = Weak harm avoidance behavior, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Some harm avoidance behavior
  • 4 = More harm avoidance
Harm avoidance is the tendency to gear actions toward things that yield a low likelihood of potential physical or emotional harm. Individuals with high harm avoidance behavior tend to be more fearful, doubtful, and shy. A study found that harm avoidance personality is associated with the development of anxiety and depression.
References
Gambling Behavior
gambling
  • 0 = Less easily addicted to gambling
  • 1 = Not easily addicted to gambling, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Somewhat easily addicted to gambling
  • 4 = More easily addicted to gambling
Gambling, when done reasonably, can be a entertaining leisure activity. But excessive gambling, which is often tied to personality or other disorders, can be hazardous. Early investigations into the link between genetic markers related to gambling addiction have reported associations with genes involved in the brain’s reward and impulse control systems. Have these SNPs? Then it’s probably best to avoid gambling altogether.
References
Novelty Seeking Behavior
novelty-seeking
  • 0 = Seeks novelty less
  • 1 = Weak novelty-seeking behavior, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Some novelty-seeking behavior
  • 4 = Seeks novelty more
Individuals with high novelty seeking behavior tend to respond more dramatically to novel stimulation and reward signals, and make decisions more impulsively. It is a highly heritable personality trait. Novelty seeking has been found to have a positive correlation with extraversion and a negative correlation with conscientiousness.
References
Childhood Intelligence
childhood-intelligence
  • 0 = Less high
  • 1 = Slightly poor
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher
  • 4 = Higher
Intelligence in childhood, as measured by IQ tests, is correlated with important outcomes in later life, such as educational attainment, income, and health. The referenced study on children aged 6-18 years old found that while no single SNP could explain variance in childhood intelligence independently, the aggregate effect of an array of SNPs predicted 22-46% of variance in childhood intelligence.
References
Hearing Ability
hearing-function
  • 0 = Less acute
  • 1 = Slightly poor
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly better
  • 4 = More acute
Hearing ability is heritable. While research is still in the early stages, a candidate causal gene for human hearing ability identified in the referenced study was found to play a role in early development and maintenance of hearing function in mouse models.
References
Intelligence
intelligence
  • 0 = Less high
  • 1 = Slightly poor
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher
  • 4 = Higher
Intelligence, as measured by IQ tests, is correlated with important outcomes in life, such as educational attainment, income, and health. In the referenced study, over 50 genes were implicated in influencing individuals’ intelligence level. Further analysis found that these genes were predominantly expressed in the brain.
References
Mathematical Ability
mathematical-ability
  • 0 = Less acute
  • 1 = Slightly poor
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly better
  • 4 = More acute
The ability to do math well, like intelligence, is a complex and highly polygenic trait. This means that many genes are involved, and they interact with each other in complex ways that researchers may not yet understand. A gene involved in neurogenesis (the production of nervous system cells) is especially implicated in math ability.
References
Word Reading Ability
word-reading-ability
  • 0 = Less acute
  • 1 = Slightly poor reading ability
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly better reading ability
  • 4 = More acute
Word reading ability is the ability to recognize and pronounce words with accuracy. While some SNPs were found to be correlated with word reading ability, significant environmental factors -- like the education you received -- plays a major role and may better account for your actual word reading ability.
References
Reading and Spelling Ability
reading-and-spelling-ability
  • 0 = Less acute
  • 1 = Slightly poor
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly better
  • 4 = More acute
Spelling and reading comprehension skills are important foundational language skills that children acquire early on in school to set them up for success in later education. While some SNPs were found to be correlated with reading and spelling ability, significant environmental factors -- like the education you received -- plays a major role and may better account for your actual reading and spelling ability.
References
Hippocampal Volume
hippocampal-volume
  • 0 = Smaller volume
  • 1 = Slightly smaller
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly larger
  • 4 = Greater volume
The hippocampus is a brain structure integral in memory consolidation and spatial navigation. Research on the genetic underpinnings of hippocampal volume has identified several genetic markers, as well as an increased risk for Alzheimer’s disease for genetic variants associated with decreased hippocampal volume.
References
Beard Thickness
beard-thickness
  • 0 = Thinner beard
  • 1 = Tend not to get a thick beard, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to get a thicker beard
  • 4 = Thicker beard
As you may have noticed, the thickness of your beard largely reflects the beard thickness of other males in your family. Beard thickness is a highly heritable trait. Some research studies have reported on genetic markers that are linked to beard thickness.
References
Morningness
morning-person
  • 0 = Less a morning person
  • 1 = Tend not to be a morning person, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to be a morning person
  • 4 = More a morning person
Are you an early bird or a night owl? Age plays a big role -- teenagers tend toward a night owl lifestyle, while senior people are usually up at the crack of dawn. Besides your age, genetics also influences the time of day you tend to be more active and alert.
References
Genetic Weight
weight
  • 0 = Lower body weight
  • 1 = Tend not to have heavy weight, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to have heavy weight
  • 4 = Higher body weight
Body weight is the weight of the whole body including muscles, bones, organs, blood and body fat. While obesity can be hereditary, there are many other factors influencing body weight that are within your control: your diet, exercise, sleep, and lifestyle habits.
References
BMI
bmi
  • 0 = Lower
  • 1 = Slightly lower
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher
  • 4 = Higher
Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body fat based on height and weight that applies to adult men and women. It is calculated as weight in kilograms divided by the square of height in meters. A score of over 25 is considered overweight, and obese if over 30. A score below 18.5 is considered underweight.
References
Motion Sickness
motion-sickness
  • 0 = Less likely to get motion sickness
  • 1 = Tend to not get motion-sickness, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to get motion sickness
  • 4 = More likely to get motion sickness
Research on motion sickness suggests that nausea associated with movement in a car, boat, or airplane is hereditary. Specific genetic markers have been identified.
References
Earlobe Size
lobe-size
  • 0 = Smaller earlobes
  • 1 = Slightly smaller ear lobe size
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly bigger ear lobe size
  • 4 = Larger earlobes
Ear lobes are not a facial feature most people take note of, or even notice, when encountering another person. However, if you think carefully, you may recall that people you know have earlobes of varying sizes and shapes. In fact, the size of earlobes has been associated with several genetic markers. Buddha must have had the genetic variant for extra large earlobes!
References
Longevity
longevity
  • 0 = Shorter lifespan
  • 1 = Tend not to live long, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to live longer
  • 4 = Longer lifespan
This trait examines the common genetic markers found for elderly humans of over 80 years old.
References
Skin Pigmentation
skin-pigmentation
  • 0 = Darker skin
  • 1 = Slight tendency to get more pigmentation
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Tend to get less pigmentation, slightly
  • 4 = Lighter skin
The amount of skin pigmentation, which to a large extent determines your skin color, is mostly influenced by genetics.
References
Male-Pattern Baldness
male-pattern-baldness-aga
  • 0 = Lower risk
  • 1 = Slightly lower risk
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher risk
  • 4 = Higher risk
Male pattern baldness, or androgenetic alopecia (AGA), is a highly heritable condition and the most common form of hair loss in humans.
References
Freckles
freckles
  • 0 = Less freckling
  • 1 = Tend to get less freckling, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency of freckling
  • 4 = More freckling
The amount of facial freckling is largely governed by how fair your skin is (your skin pigmentation), and your sensitivity to sunlight.
References
Height
height
  • 0 = Shorter
  • 1 = Slightly shorter
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly taller
  • 4 = Taller
Height is greatly impacted by genetics, but in a complex way. Hundreds of genetic markers contribute to your height, not to mention all the environmental factors at play. Therefore, while it's difficult to obtain a reliable read on your height, this is the best estimate based on the most reliable pieces of research on human height.
References
Body Fat Mass
body-fat-mass
  • 0 = Lower fat mass
  • 1 = Slightly lower
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher
  • 4 = Higher fat mass
Body fat mass indicates the total weight of fat tissue in your body. It is more homogeneous and accurate than body total mass in measuring obesity but has rarely been studied. The study referenced for this trait uncovered the genetic basis of fat-induced obesity.
References
Lean Body Mass
lean-body-mass
  • 0 = Less lean mass
  • 1 = Tend not to have heavy lean body mass, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to have heavy lean body mass
  • 4 = More lean mass
Lean body mass represents your total body weight minus fat mass. This composes of your muscles and bones. The study referenced for this trait identified TRHR as an important gene in lean body mass variation among humans.
References
Body Fat Percentage
body-fat-percentage
  • 0 = Less body fat
  • 1 = Slightly lower fat percentage
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly higher fat percentage
  • 4 = More body fat
Body fat percentage is a common measure for obesity. Keeping track of body fat percentage and keeping it in check while losing weight is the best way to avoid rebound weight gain.
References
Adipose Tissue Type Ratio
visceral-and-subcutaneous-adipose-tissue-ratio
  • 0 = More visceral adipose tissue
  • 1 = Tend to get more visceral adipose tissue, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Tend to get more subcutaneous adipose tissue, slightly
  • 4 = More subcutaneous adipose tissue
Body fat is made up of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissues. Visceral fat is the fat lining internal organs, and contributes to the notorious beer belly. Subcutaneous fat is the fat under the skin. The ratio between visceral and subcutaneous fat varies among people genetically.
References
Waist Size
waist
  • 0 = Smaller waist
  • 1 = Tend to have a smaller waist, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Tend to have a larger waist, slightly
  • 4 = Larger waist
Waist circumference is a measure for abdominal obesity. Several genetic markers linked to waist size were identified in research studies to understand the genetic underpinnings of abdominal obesity.
References
Waist Hip Ratio
waist-hip-ratio
  • 0 = Bigger hips
  • 1 = Tend to have a bigger hip, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Tend to have a bigger waist, slightly
  • 4 = Larger waist
Body fat distribution is a heritable trait and a well-established predictor of adverse metabolic outcomes, independent of overall fat mass. The waist to hip ratio is a good measure of body fat distribution in understanding genetic links to cardiometabolic traits.
References
Breast Size
breast-size
  • 0 = Smaller breasts
  • 1 = Slightly smaller
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly bigger
  • 4 = Larger breasts
Breast size is moderately heritable, yet the genetic variants leading to differences in breast size have only recently been identified. This trait only applies to women, so if you are male, please disregard these results!
References
Sleep Duration
sleep-duration
  • 0 = Tend to be shorter
  • 1 = Tend to be slightly shorter
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Tend to be slightly longer
  • 4 = Tend to be longer
Sleep duration is the length of shut-eye time needed. Whatever our sleep duration is, we should strive to meet that. Chronic sleep deprivation or disturbance is associated with a host of chronic diseases
References
Excessive Daytime Sleepiness
excessive-daytime-sleepiness
  • 0 = Less daytime sleepiness
  • 1 = Tend not to get daytime sleepiness, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to get daytime sleepiness
  • 4 = More daytime sleepiness
An adult who is compelled to nap repeatedly during the day may have excessive daytime sleepiness if it persists chronically. It is characterized by persistent sleepiness and often a general lack of energy, even during the day after apparently adequate or even prolonged nighttime sleep.
References
Job Related Exhaustion
job-related-exhaustion
  • 0 = Less job-related exhaustion
  • 1 = Tend not to be exhausted, slightly
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slight tendency to be exhausted
  • 4 = More job-related exhaustion
Job-related exhaustion is characterized by physical and emotional fatigue from work. This trait was investigated in shift workers, whose irregular hours made it easier to examine the effects of disturbed sleep and fatigue.
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Endurance Performance
endurance-performance
  • 0 = Poor endurance performance
  • 1 = Slightly poor endurance performance
  • 2 = Intermediate
  • 3 = Slightly better endurance performance
  • 4 = Good endurance performance
There are two main types of muscle fiber: slow twitch and fast twitch muscle fibers. Slow twitch generates continuous energy steadily and is suited for endurance performance. Fast twitch provides shorts bursts of power and is geared toward power performance that requires rapid energy for a short amount of time. Everyone has both types of muscles, but its ratio differs among individuals. There is initial evidence that exercise may alter this ratio.
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