January 12, 2022
Physical Traits

Could your DNA reveal your Menstrual Cycle Length?

Could your DNA reveal your Menstrual Cycle Length? Upload raw DNA data to learn more about yourself and genomics science.
Genomelink team

How genetic factors affect the menstrual cycle

Attention, friends who menstruate: your DNA may be intervening in your menstrual cycle length. And if you’ve ever wondered about why the length of the menstrual cycle you experience is what it is, your genetics may be able to provide an answer.

What Is A Cycle Length In A Period?

Although the average menstrual cycle length is 27-30 days, each person's menstrual cycle duration cycle is a little different. As you may know from biology class, the menstrual cycle is complicated. It is regulated by hormones such as estrogen, progesterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) that interact with each other through positive and negative feedback loops. Previous research has shown the importance of genes such as the FSHB gene (which codes for part of FSH) in this process: their levels of expression can cause all sorts of reproductive health problems, such as irregular periods.

Without going into the nitty gritty of how it all works, let's look a little more closely at how genetic factors affect the period cycle length. In a genome-wide association study of more than 40,000 women, Laisk and colleagues found five statistically significant loci associated with menstrual cycle length. The five loci were located near five different genes, some which are known to play instrumental roles in menstrual cycle regulation (FSHB, PGR, and GNRH1) as well as newly discovered ones (IGF2 and NR5A2).

The IGF2 gene may be important because it stimulates the production of estrogen (which affects the regulation of other important menstruation-related hormones), which ultimately affects how follicles mature. As for NR5A2, the gene has been previously linked to age at menarche (or a person's first period). Interestingly, with respect to this gene, those with a specific variant were found to have longer menstrual cycles and tend to be older when they have their first period. If you're keen to learn more, check out the full study: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30202859

Unfortunately, the study is limited in that information on the length of menstrual cycles was entirely self-reported (which can be biased). Nevertheless, this study is still very useful because it is the largest genome-wide association study on menstrual cycle length so far. Future research using a more accurate way of measuring menstrual cycle length and with an even larger sample size would be fruitful.

Using a DNA testing kit can give you some insight into your menstrual cycle length. Uploading Genetic DNA testing data on genomelink can offer a full DNA analysis so you can finally understand why your menstrual cycle duration is what it is.

If you menstruate, discover what your genes say about your monthly cycle length on Genomelink now!

Menstrual Cycle Length

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